To date, brain imaging has largely relied on X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography, with their limited spatial resolution and long scanning times. Fluorescence-based brain imaging in the visible and traditional near-infrared regions (400-900 nm) is an alternative, but at present it requires craniotomy, cranial windows and skull-thinning techniques, and the penetration depth is limited to 1-2 mm due to light scattering. Here, we report through-scalp and through-skull fluorescence imaging of mouse cerebral vasculature without craniotomy, utilizing the intrinsic photoluminescence of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the 1.3-1.4 μm near-infrared window (NIR-IIa window). Reduced photon scattering in this spectral region allows fluorescence imaging to a depth of >2 mm in mouse brain with sub-10-μm resolution. An imaging rate of ∼5.3 frames per second allows for dynamic recording of blood perfusion in the cerebral vessels with sufficient temporal resolution, providing real-time assessment of a blood flow anomaly in a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics