Minerals and raw materials are highly important for development of any economy. In many countries, including Russia, they are the basis of business activity. The rates of increase in their production and utilization grow year in year out. By experts' estimates, the volume of mining production is going to build up more than 5 times in the nearest 50 years, at the concurrent multiple zooming of the consumption of the produced materials. Today none of the countries in the world possesses all wanted minerals. Nonuniform distribution of global mineral resources conditions the need to transfer huge amounts both of raw materials and conversion products all over the world. The scope and direction of flows of mineral commodities are influenced by natural geography factors and by many other factors, such as science and technology and geopolitics. Considerable changes in this sphere take place on the background of the promoting globalization of the world economy. Russia is a significant player in the global market of minerals and raw materials as the largest mineral mining country in the world and a leading exporter of many kinds of minerals. However, in terms of the domestic consumption of extracted minerals, Russia gives way to many countries. As for the use of the most important reserves per capita, Russia falls behind the postindustrial countries by 2 to 5 times. At the present time, Russia is simultaneously an exporter and importer of many kinds of raw materials. The import content of some marketable raw materials makes 25 to 100% of net consumption. The import flows of some crude materials off er almost a 100% supply for the national industry, which is a certain threat to the Russian economy. The import dependence of the industries calls for close attention to be paid to its causes, question pertinent to optimization of flows of mineral commodities and for searching for potentiality of the import substitution based on the inner capabilities. In the conditions of insuffi cient financial resources for implementation of new import substitution projects and in view of the heightened competition at the end of the foreign supplies of minerals and raw materials, it is required to explore new optimization scenarios for flows of import commodities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology