Background: Schizophrenia is associated with a lowered life expectancy due to cardiovascular disease. This is, at least in part, related to an increased vulnerability to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with schizophrenia. The dysregulation of apolipoproteins (Apos) may also play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia via their effect on cerebral cholesterol processing. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate serum Apos A1, C3, E, A2 and C2 concentration in schizophrenia patients with or without MetS in comparison to healthy donors. Methods: After obtaining informed consent, 53 patients with a diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria (F20) were included. Patients were divided into two groups with (N = 26) and without (N = 27) MetS according to the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. The control group included 20 mentally and physically healthy subjects. Serum Apos A1, A2, C2, C3 and E were measured using xMAP technology (Luminex). Results: Serum ApoA1 was significantly decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects (p = 0.002); ApoA2 was lower in patients without MetS in comparison to patients with MetS (p = 0.017) and the levels of ApoC3 and ApoC2 were increased in patients with schizophrenia with MetS in comparison with the control group and also with patients without MetS. No other significant differences were established concerning the other assayed apolipoproteins. Conclusions: In line with literature data the results of our study suggest that while disturbances in ApoA1 level may play a role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, ApoA2, ApoC2, ApoC3 and ApoE may be primarily related to metabolic imbalance.
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