The review describes working and reference electrodes based on solid and/or paste amalgams and their application for voltammetric, amperometric, and potentiometric determination of both inorganic and organic analytes. Attention is paid to their preparation, pre-treatment and possible modification, and their application in classical voltammetric arrangements, in flowing systems (HPLC-ED, FIA-ED), and in adsorptive transfer stripping voltammetry. The review confirms that amalgam electrodes can successfully substitute mercury electrodes and, in some special cases, offer possibilities not available to mercury electrodes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry