A hapten-protein conjugate with copper nanoparticles (Hap-Car-BSA@CuNPs) was first synthesized in the present work for the determination of carbaryl. The copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) of the conjugate were used as electrochemical labels in the direct solid-phase competitive determination of carbaryl residues in flour from different crops. The signal was read by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV) of copper (through the electrochemical stripping of accumulated elemental copper) on a gold-graphite electrode (GGE). To form a recognition receptor layer of monoclonal antibodies against the carbaryl on the surface of the GGE, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 1-hydroxy-2,5-pyrrolidinedione (NHS) were used as the best covalent cross-linkers. The concentrations of the antibodies and the Hap-Car-BSA@CuNPs conjugate were optimized for carbaryl detection by the electrochemical immunosensor. The electrochemical immunosensor can be used for highly sensitive determination of carbaryl residues in flour samples in the concentration range 0.8–32.3 μg·kg−1, with a limit of detection 0.08 μg·kg−1. The present work paves the path for a novel method for monitoring carbaryl in other food products, drinks, and soil samples.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry