Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are expressed on a variety of leukocytes and play important roles in inflammation. Thus, FPR antagonists may represent novel therapeutics for modulating innate immunity and treating inflammatory diseases. Previously, 1H-pyrrol-2(5H)-ones were reported to be potent and competitive FPR1 antagonists. In the present studies, 42 additional 1H-pyrrol-2(5H)-one analogs were evaluated for FPR1 antagonist activity. We identified a number of novel competitive FPR1 antagonists that inhibited N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF)-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in FPR1-transfected HL60 cells and effectively competed with WKYMVm-FITC for binding to FPR1 in FPR1-transfected RBL cells. The most active pyrroles inhibited human neutrophil Ca2+ flux, chemotaxis, and adhesion to human epithelial cells, with the most potent being compounds 14 (4-benzoyl-1-hexyl-3-hydroxy-5-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-one) and 17 (4-benzoyl-5-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyethyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-2-one). In addition, these FPR1 antagonists inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in FPR1-RBL cells, differentiated HL-60 cells, and human neutrophils. Most of the antagonists were specific for FPR1 and did not inhibit WKYMVM/WKYMVm-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in FPR2-HL60 cells, FPR3-HL60 cells, or interleukin 8-induced Ca2+ flux in human neutrophils. Moreover, molecular modeling showed that the active pyrroles had a significantly higher degree of similarity with the FPR1 antagonist pharmacophore template as compared to inactive analogs. Thus, the 4-aroyl-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2(5H)-one scaffold represents an important backbone for the development of novel FPR1 antagonists and could provide important clues for understanding the molecular structural requirements of FPR1 antagonists.
ASJC Scopus subject areas