Three-dimensional reciprocal space mapping with a two-dimensional detector as a low-latency tool for investigating the influence of growth parameters on defects in semipolar GaN

Sondes Bauer, Sergey Lazarev, Martin Bauer, Tobias Meisch, Marian Caliebe, Václav Holý, Ferdinand Scholz, Tilo Baumbach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


A rapid nondestructive defect assessment and quantification method based on X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping has been established. A fast read-out two-dimensional detector with a high dynamic range of 20bits, in combination with a powerful data analysis software package, is set up to provide fast feedback to crystal growers with the goal of supporting the development of reduced defect density GaN growth techniques. This would contribute strongly to the improvement of the crystal quality of epitaxial structures and therefore of optoelectronic properties. The method of normalized three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping is found to be a reliable tool which shows clearly the influence of the parameters of the metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial and hydride vapour phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth methods on the extent of the diffuse scattering streak. This method enables determination of the basal stacking faults and an exploration of the presence of other types of defect such as partial dislocations and prismatic stacking faults. Three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping is specifically used in the manuscript to determine basal stacking faults quantitatively and to discuss the presence of partial dislocations. This newly developed method has been applied to semipolar GaN structures grown on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). The fitting of the diffuse scattering intensity profiles along the stacking fault streaks with simulations based on a Monte Carlo approach has delivered an accurate determination of the basal plane stacking fault density. Three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping is shown to be a method sensitive to the influence of crystallographic surface orientation on basal stacking fault densities during investigation of semipolar ((1122) GaN grown on an r-plane (1102) PSS and semipolar (1011) GaN grown on an n-plane (1123) PSS. Moreover, the influence of HVPE overgrowth at reduced temperature on the quality of semipolar ((1122) GaN has been studied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1000-1010
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Crystallography
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2015
Externally publishedYes



  • defects
  • influence of growth parameters
  • semipolar GaN
  • three-dimensional reciprocal-space mapping

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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