The use of composite electrodes in the analysis of drinking water

T. Navratil, B. Yosypchuk, J. Barek

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)


Recent results regarding voltammetric and amperometric determination of micromolar and submicromolar concentrations of various environmentally important biologically active inorganic and organic substances in drinking water using composite solid electrodes (CSE) are described in this chapter. This type of relatively frequently used electrodes, in commercial as well as in scientific laboratories, can represent successful and environmentally friendly alternative to mercury electrodes in analysis of drinking water. The discussed electrodes belong to the group of composite electrodes with random ensembles of dispersed particles with final solid form. CSE are composed, according to their definition, of at least one conductor phase and at least one insulator phase, which particles are mutually mixed. Insulator phase is usually represented by a polymeric or a monomeric material. Conductor phase can be formed by either metallic (silver, gold, etc.) or by another nonmetallic conducting material (e.g. graphite powder) or by their mixture. Some specific properties, required for determination of chosen analytes in specified matrix, can be added into bulk of the electrode materials. Surface of these electrodes can be also modified, e.g. by Nafion, catalyst or enzyme. CSE can be applied either in batch analysis or in flow liquid systems (especially HPLC or FIA with electrochemical detection). Solid amalgam composite electrodes, prepared from solid amalgam powder and insulator phase, are another example of CSE. They proved experimentally to be a suitable, reliable and environmentally friendly substitute for the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) in electrochemical analyses. The review will concentrate on our own results in the context of the general development in the field.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProgress on Drinking Water Research
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Number of pages47
ISBN (Electronic)9781616680893
ISBN (Print)9781604567489
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Amperometry
  • Aqueous solutions
  • Composite solid electrodes
  • Drinking water
  • FIA-ED
  • Polarography
  • Underpotential deposition effect
  • UPD effect
  • Voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The use of composite electrodes in the analysis of drinking water'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this