The work compares the strength characteristics and microstructure of 2-mm-thick welded joints from Al-Mg alloy AA5056, produced by friction stir welding along and across the workpiece rolling direction. The tests show that the variation of parameters results in the formation of a complex structure, which is determined by the contribution of both mechanical and thermal components. Depending on the rolling direction, the welded joint has different mechanical properties under identical conditions. In the case of the rolling direction coinciding with the friction stir welding direction, the strongest welded joint has the ultimate tensile strength of 328 MPa, which is equal to 98% of the base metal strength. In case of welding in the transverse direction, the ultimate tensile strength of the joint exceeds those of the base metal by 8 MPa and is equal to 333 MPa. According to the conducted experiments it was proved that the structure and strength of friction stir welded joints depends on the workpiece rolling direction, which implies different welding parameters for these cases.