The Effect of Electron Beam Welding on the Microstructure and Microhardness of 3D-Printed Products from Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V

E. N. Boyangin, O. B. Perevalova, A. V. Panin, S. A. Martynov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Abstract: The microstructure of double-sided welded joints of 3D-printed items made of titanium alloy Ti‒6Al–4V by the electron-beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) method has been investigated using the methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that columnar epitaxial growth of primary β grains with transverse dimensions close to the sizes of primary β grains in the base material occurs in the process of electron-beam welding with a double-sided welded joint. Inside the primary β grains, there are grains of the α-phase with a lamellar shape inherited from the α' martensite, which is formed in the course of transformation β → α'. As in the printed samples, there is a nanocrystalline α"-phase in the metal of the welded joint inside grains of the α-phase and in interlayers of the β-phase. However, the density of particles of this phase in the metal of the welded joint is higher than in the base material. In the metal of the welded joint, tensile macrostresses and elastic residual microstrains also increase. The microhardness of the metal of the welded joint is greater than the microhardness of the base material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-147
Number of pages7
JournalPhysics of Metals and Metallography
Volume122
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

Keywords

  • additive technologies
  • microhardness
  • microstructure
  • scanning transmission electron microscopy
  • Ti–6Al–4V
  • welded joint
  • X-ray diffraction analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Materials Chemistry

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