This work reports the application of screen-printed electrodes bulk-modified with bismuth precursors to the voltammetric determination of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) in water samples. A bismuth film was formed at the electrode surface via in situ reduction of the precursor compound contained in the electrode matrix by cathodic polarization at -1.20V. The formation of bismuth layer at the precursor-modified electrodes was assessed by cyclic voltammetric (CV) at different pH values and by optical techniques. The target nitrophenols were voltammetrically determined by recording their reduction peaks in the differential pulse (DP) mode. The composition and content of the precursor compounds in the printed ink and the effect of the pH of the supporting electrolyte on the DP reduction currents of the 3 target nitrophenols were studied. The limits of quantification (LOQs) in three water matrices (distilled water, tap water and surface water) were in the range 1.1-2.2μmolL-1 . Using a simple solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure with Lichrolut EN cartridges and elution with methanol, a preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved; the LOQs were 0.021, 0.027 and 0.025μmolL-1 for 2-NP, 4-NP and 2,4-DNP, respectively. The recoveries of samples spiked with the 3 target nitrophenols at two concentration levels (0.04 and 0.1μmolL-1) were always >87%.
- Bismuth precursors
- Differential pulse voltammetry
- Solid-phase extraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry