Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes

S. Sfarra, C. Ibarra-Castanedo, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, A. Bendada, X. Maldague

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Among the several issues to be considered during fresco's restoration, the understanding of the effectiveness of the intervention, the identification of the main chemical elements used in previous restorations and the attention to weak areas of the building structure, adjacent to frescoes, are of paramount importance. This work describes an integrated, non-destructive testing approach focusing on these three main issues. In particular, two frescoes of Giacomo Farelli are analyzed herein. These artworks were affected by a strong earthquake in 2009, which had a heavy impact on several cultural heritage objects in L'Aquila (Italy), including on the Santa Maria della Croce di Roio Church (1625), where these two frescoes are located. One of the frescoes, which underwent a restoring before the quake, was previously tested by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) before and after the restoration. These previous results are compared with new measurements carried out after the 2009 earthquake using infrared thermography (IRT). The combined approach, ESPI-IRT, clearly highlighted that the structure of the frescoes was significantly affected by the earthquake, since the old subsurface cracks, restored before 2009, were once again evident after the earthquake. In addition, the presence of a subsurface niche containing an ancient statue, also detected by means of IRT, might contribute to increase the severity of the damages. Finally, the joint examination of these frescoes using near-infrared reflectography and X-ray diffractometry was crucial to confirm the presence of a radioactive chemical element in the wall painting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3461-3480
Number of pages20
JournalArabian Journal for Science and Engineering
Volume39
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

nondestructive testing
earthquake
speckle
chemical element
interferometry
cultural heritage
niche
near infrared
crack
damage
restoration
electronics

Keywords

  • Earthquake
  • Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI)
  • Fresco
  • Infrared thermography (IRT)
  • Near-infrared (NIR) reflectography
  • Restoration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Sfarra, S., Ibarra-Castanedo, C., Ambrosini, D., Paoletti, D., Bendada, A., & Maldague, X. (2014). Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(5), 3461-3480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-014-0992-z

Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes. / Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

In: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 39, No. 5, 2014, p. 3461-3480.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sfarra, S, Ibarra-Castanedo, C, Ambrosini, D, Paoletti, D, Bendada, A & Maldague, X 2014, 'Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes', Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 3461-3480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-014-0992-z
Sfarra, S. ; Ibarra-Castanedo, C. ; Ambrosini, D. ; Paoletti, D. ; Bendada, A. ; Maldague, X. / Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes. In: Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2014 ; Vol. 39, No. 5. pp. 3461-3480.
@article{b88db3d5421b43da972a7edebd3d9d71,
title = "Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes",
abstract = "Among the several issues to be considered during fresco's restoration, the understanding of the effectiveness of the intervention, the identification of the main chemical elements used in previous restorations and the attention to weak areas of the building structure, adjacent to frescoes, are of paramount importance. This work describes an integrated, non-destructive testing approach focusing on these three main issues. In particular, two frescoes of Giacomo Farelli are analyzed herein. These artworks were affected by a strong earthquake in 2009, which had a heavy impact on several cultural heritage objects in L'Aquila (Italy), including on the Santa Maria della Croce di Roio Church (1625), where these two frescoes are located. One of the frescoes, which underwent a restoring before the quake, was previously tested by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) before and after the restoration. These previous results are compared with new measurements carried out after the 2009 earthquake using infrared thermography (IRT). The combined approach, ESPI-IRT, clearly highlighted that the structure of the frescoes was significantly affected by the earthquake, since the old subsurface cracks, restored before 2009, were once again evident after the earthquake. In addition, the presence of a subsurface niche containing an ancient statue, also detected by means of IRT, might contribute to increase the severity of the damages. Finally, the joint examination of these frescoes using near-infrared reflectography and X-ray diffractometry was crucial to confirm the presence of a radioactive chemical element in the wall painting.",
keywords = "Earthquake, Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), Fresco, Infrared thermography (IRT), Near-infrared (NIR) reflectography, Restoration",
author = "S. Sfarra and C. Ibarra-Castanedo and D. Ambrosini and D. Paoletti and A. Bendada and X. Maldague",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1007/s13369-014-0992-z",
language = "English",
volume = "39",
pages = "3461--3480",
journal = "Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering",
issn = "1319-8025",
publisher = "Springer Berlin",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Non-Destructive Testing Techniques to Help the Restoration of Frescoes

AU - Sfarra, S.

AU - Ibarra-Castanedo, C.

AU - Ambrosini, D.

AU - Paoletti, D.

AU - Bendada, A.

AU - Maldague, X.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Among the several issues to be considered during fresco's restoration, the understanding of the effectiveness of the intervention, the identification of the main chemical elements used in previous restorations and the attention to weak areas of the building structure, adjacent to frescoes, are of paramount importance. This work describes an integrated, non-destructive testing approach focusing on these three main issues. In particular, two frescoes of Giacomo Farelli are analyzed herein. These artworks were affected by a strong earthquake in 2009, which had a heavy impact on several cultural heritage objects in L'Aquila (Italy), including on the Santa Maria della Croce di Roio Church (1625), where these two frescoes are located. One of the frescoes, which underwent a restoring before the quake, was previously tested by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) before and after the restoration. These previous results are compared with new measurements carried out after the 2009 earthquake using infrared thermography (IRT). The combined approach, ESPI-IRT, clearly highlighted that the structure of the frescoes was significantly affected by the earthquake, since the old subsurface cracks, restored before 2009, were once again evident after the earthquake. In addition, the presence of a subsurface niche containing an ancient statue, also detected by means of IRT, might contribute to increase the severity of the damages. Finally, the joint examination of these frescoes using near-infrared reflectography and X-ray diffractometry was crucial to confirm the presence of a radioactive chemical element in the wall painting.

AB - Among the several issues to be considered during fresco's restoration, the understanding of the effectiveness of the intervention, the identification of the main chemical elements used in previous restorations and the attention to weak areas of the building structure, adjacent to frescoes, are of paramount importance. This work describes an integrated, non-destructive testing approach focusing on these three main issues. In particular, two frescoes of Giacomo Farelli are analyzed herein. These artworks were affected by a strong earthquake in 2009, which had a heavy impact on several cultural heritage objects in L'Aquila (Italy), including on the Santa Maria della Croce di Roio Church (1625), where these two frescoes are located. One of the frescoes, which underwent a restoring before the quake, was previously tested by electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) before and after the restoration. These previous results are compared with new measurements carried out after the 2009 earthquake using infrared thermography (IRT). The combined approach, ESPI-IRT, clearly highlighted that the structure of the frescoes was significantly affected by the earthquake, since the old subsurface cracks, restored before 2009, were once again evident after the earthquake. In addition, the presence of a subsurface niche containing an ancient statue, also detected by means of IRT, might contribute to increase the severity of the damages. Finally, the joint examination of these frescoes using near-infrared reflectography and X-ray diffractometry was crucial to confirm the presence of a radioactive chemical element in the wall painting.

KW - Earthquake

KW - Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI)

KW - Fresco

KW - Infrared thermography (IRT)

KW - Near-infrared (NIR) reflectography

KW - Restoration

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84899629733&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84899629733&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s13369-014-0992-z

DO - 10.1007/s13369-014-0992-z

M3 - Article

VL - 39

SP - 3461

EP - 3480

JO - Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

JF - Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering

SN - 1319-8025

IS - 5

ER -