Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters

Munawar Saeed Qureshi, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirzal, Sirajuddin, Jiri Barek, Hassan Imran Afridi, Zafer Üstündag

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-159
Number of pages14
JournalCritical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Carcinogens
  • endocrine disruptors
  • phthalates

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

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