Ion-Induced Defects in Graphite: A Combined Kelvin Probe and Raman Microscopy Investigation

Raul D. Rodriguez, Zoheb Khan, Bing Ma, Ashutosh Mukherjee, Peter Meszmer, Jana Kalbacova, Elias Garratt, Harsha Shah, Jens Heilmann, Angela R. Hight Walker, Bernhard Wunderle, Evgeniya Sheremet, Michael Hietschold, Dietrich R.T. Zahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Carbon nanomaterials are important for future sensors and electronics. Defects determine the material properties, therefore, it is critical to find new ways to investigate defects at the nanoscale. In this context, Raman spectroscopy (RS) is the tool of choice to study defects in carbon nanomaterials. On the other hand, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) provides structural and surface potential information at the nanoscale. Here, the authors demonstrate the synergistic application of these methods in the investigation of ion-beam-induced defects in graphite. KPFM and RS imaging are used for visualizing ion-induced defects in a wide range of ion doses from 1010 to 1016 ions cm−2. For the lower range of ion dose, the authors find that RS provides image contrast for the different defect regions in graphite up to a dose of 5 × 1013 ions cm−2. For higher doses, the sp2 carbon concentration becomes so small that the Raman spectra get dominated by broad amorphous carbon bands. For this dose range, the KPFM contrast allows the defective regions to be differentiated. This contrast in KPFM originates from sp3 carbons that act as charge traps. The results show that KPFM and Raman microscopy make a powerful and necessary combination for studying the spatial distribution of defects in carbon.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1900055
JournalPhysica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • defects
  • focused ion beam
  • graphene
  • graphite
  • Kelvin probe force
  • microscopy
  • nanocharacterization
  • Raman spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

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