Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens

Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

Koffi Kouakou, Igor A. Schepetkin, SangMu Jun, Liliya N. Kirpotina, Ahoua Yapi, Daria S. Khramova, David W. Pascual, Yury S. Ovodov, Mark A. Jutila, Mark T. Quinn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts.Methods: Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined.Results: Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CCL3, and MIP-1β/CCL4. CSP-AU1 treatment of mice with EAE (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily, 13 days) resulted in significantly reduced disease severity in this experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Levels of IL-13, TNF, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, and GM-CSF were also significantly decreased, whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased in LN cells from CSP-AU1-treated EAE mice.Conclusions: Polysaccharide CSP-AU1 is a potent natural innate immunomodulator with a broad spectrum of agonist activity in vitro and immunosupressive properties after chronic administration in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Article number149
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Clerodendrum
Autoimmune Experimental Encephalomyelitis
Polysaccharides
Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
Toll-Like Receptor 4
Molecular Weight
Lymph Nodes
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Cytokines
Monocytes
Blood Cells
Nitric Oxide
Macrophages
Phosphorylation
Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein
Interleukin-13
Interleukin-17
Chemokine CCL2
Esterification
Ion Exchange

Keywords

  • Clerodendrum splendens
  • Cytokine
  • Immunomodulation
  • Macrophage
  • Polysaccharide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens : Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. / Kouakou, Koffi; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Jun, SangMu; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Yapi, Ahoua; Khramova, Daria S.; Pascual, David W.; Ovodov, Yury S.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 13, 149, 28.06.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kouakou, Koffi ; Schepetkin, Igor A. ; Jun, SangMu ; Kirpotina, Liliya N. ; Yapi, Ahoua ; Khramova, Daria S. ; Pascual, David W. ; Ovodov, Yury S. ; Jutila, Mark A. ; Quinn, Mark T. / Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens : Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013 ; Vol. 13.
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abstract = "Background: Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts.Methods: Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined.Results: Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CCL3, and MIP-1β/CCL4. CSP-AU1 treatment of mice with EAE (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily, 13 days) resulted in significantly reduced disease severity in this experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Levels of IL-13, TNF, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, and GM-CSF were also significantly decreased, whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased in LN cells from CSP-AU1-treated EAE mice.Conclusions: Polysaccharide CSP-AU1 is a potent natural innate immunomodulator with a broad spectrum of agonist activity in vitro and immunosupressive properties after chronic administration in vivo.",
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author = "Koffi Kouakou and Schepetkin, {Igor A.} and SangMu Jun and Kirpotina, {Liliya N.} and Ahoua Yapi and Khramova, {Daria S.} and Pascual, {David W.} and Ovodov, {Yury S.} and Jutila, {Mark A.} and Quinn, {Mark T.}",
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journal = "BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Clerodendrum splendens

T2 - Beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

AU - Kouakou, Koffi

AU - Schepetkin, Igor A.

AU - Jun, SangMu

AU - Kirpotina, Liliya N.

AU - Yapi, Ahoua

AU - Khramova, Daria S.

AU - Pascual, David W.

AU - Ovodov, Yury S.

AU - Jutila, Mark A.

AU - Quinn, Mark T.

PY - 2013/6/28

Y1 - 2013/6/28

N2 - Background: Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts.Methods: Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined.Results: Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CCL3, and MIP-1β/CCL4. CSP-AU1 treatment of mice with EAE (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily, 13 days) resulted in significantly reduced disease severity in this experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Levels of IL-13, TNF, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, and GM-CSF were also significantly decreased, whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased in LN cells from CSP-AU1-treated EAE mice.Conclusions: Polysaccharide CSP-AU1 is a potent natural innate immunomodulator with a broad spectrum of agonist activity in vitro and immunosupressive properties after chronic administration in vivo.

AB - Background: Extracts of leaves from Clerodendrum have been used for centuries to treat a variety of medicinal problems in tropical Africa. However, little is known about the high-molecular weight active components conferring therapeutic properties to these extracts.Methods: Polysaccharides from the leaves of Clerodendrum splendens were extracted and fractionated by ion exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight determination, sugar analysis, degree of methyl esterification, and other chemical characterization of the fractions were performed. Immunomodulatory activity of the fractions was evaluated by determining their ability to induce monocyte/macrophage nitric oxide (NO), cytokine production, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in C57BL/6 mice, and severity of EAE was monitored in mice treated with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of the most active polysaccharide fraction. Lymph nodes (LN) and spleen were harvested, and levels of cytokines in supernatants from LN cells and splenocytes challenged with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide were determined.Results: Fractions containing type II arabinogalactan had potent immunomodulatory activity. Specifically, the high-molecular weight sub-fraction CSP-AU1 (average of 38.5 kDa) induced NO and cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1α, -1β, -6, -10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF; designated previously as TNF-α), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)] production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte/macrophages. CSP-AU1-induced secretion of TNF was prevented by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist LPS-RS, indicating a role for TLR4 signaling. Treatment with CSP-AU1 also induced phosphorylation of a number of MAPKs in human PBMC and activated AP-1/NF-κB. In vivo treatment of mice with CSP-AU1 and CSP-NU1 resulted in increased serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CCL3, and MIP-1β/CCL4. CSP-AU1 treatment of mice with EAE (50 mg/kg, i.p., daily, 13 days) resulted in significantly reduced disease severity in this experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Levels of IL-13, TNF, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, and GM-CSF were also significantly decreased, whereas transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was increased in LN cells from CSP-AU1-treated EAE mice.Conclusions: Polysaccharide CSP-AU1 is a potent natural innate immunomodulator with a broad spectrum of agonist activity in vitro and immunosupressive properties after chronic administration in vivo.

KW - Clerodendrum splendens

KW - Cytokine

KW - Immunomodulation

KW - Macrophage

KW - Polysaccharide

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