Over the years, the field of computer vision that encompasses techniques for acquiring, processing, analyzing, and understanding the visual world has created many lines of research. Of these lines, one of the main aims to electronically duplicate the skills of the human vision system. However, the same challenge has been complicated by the increase in the number and resolution of images and videos available for processing. With the need to process vast amounts of visual information, computer vision systems now must work efficiently with the limited computational resources available. In this chapter, the basic concepts of image processing are presented while focusing on the topic of image segmentation.