Hydrogen-induced phase transformation and microstructure evolution for Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by electron beam melting

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In this paper, phase transitions and microstructure evolution in titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts produced by electron beam melting (EBM) under hydrogenation was investigated. Hydrogenation was carried out at the temperature of 650 °C to the absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples of 0.29, 0.58, and 0.90 wt. %. Comparative analysis of microstructure changes in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, in-situ XRD was used to investigate the phase transitions in the samples during hydrogenation. The structure of Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by EBM is represented by the α phase plates with the transverse length of 0.2 µm, the β phase both in the form of plates and globular grains, and metastable α'' and ω phases. Hydrogenation to the concentration of 0.29 wt. % leads to the formation of intermetallic Ti3Al phase. The dimensions of intermetallic Ti3Al plates and their volume fraction increase significantly with hydrogen concentration up to 0.58 wt. % along with precipitation of nano-sized crystals of titanium δ hydrides. Individual Ti3Al plates decay into nanocrystals with increasing hydrogen concentration up to 0.9 wt. % accompanied by the increase of proportion and size of hydride plates. Hardness of EBM Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreases with hydrogen content.

Original languageEnglish
Article number301
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2018


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Electron beam melting
  • Hydrogen
  • Microstructure
  • Phase transitions
  • Titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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