Hydrochemical balance of Itkul–Shira lake system (Khakassia, Russian Federation)

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The water and hydrochemical balance of Shira and Itkul lakes, located in the arid (steppe) zone in the Republic of Khakassia (Russian Federation), has been calculated. It is shown that Lake Itkul can be considered a drained lake, which significantly determines the basic differences of the hydrochemical balance in the two water bodies. The outflow of water from Itkul to Shira is, on average, 6791000 m3/year, and the average outflow of dissolved salts is 35697 t/year. Lake Shira can be considered a drainless water body with an evaporation mechanism of formation of the chemical composition of its waters, and Lake Itkul is considered a flowing water reservoir. The salt concentration in Itkul is not as high as that in Shira due to the lower influence of evaporation on the formation of the chemical composition of waters and time of their interaction. It has been assumed that this phenomenon is regular, rather than exceptional, for the arid zone of Northern and Central Asia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)590-599
Number of pages10
JournalContemporary Problems of Ecology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016


  • arid ecosystems
  • hydrochemical and water balance
  • interaction of water with rocks
  • Khakassia
  • Lake Itkul
  • Lake Shira
  • steppe zone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

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