Geochemistry of the thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, China

S. L. Shvartsev, Z. Sun, S. V. Borzenko, B. Gao, O. G. Tokarenko, E. V. Zippa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The chemical and isotopic compositions and the origin and formation conditions of the nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters in Jiangxi Province (China) are examined. The differences between these nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters are shown. The nitric thermal waters are ultra-fresh and high alkaline with abundant SiO2, F, Na, Li, B, Sr, Rb, etc. but low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, Ag, V, Pb, Zn, Co, etc. The carbon dioxide thermal waters are distinguished by higher salinity but lower pH values. The predominant anions are HCO3 and Na+. The thermal waters’ composition peculiarity is also determined by SO4 2−, F, CO2 and H2S. The special focus is on the thermal waters’ origin and the geological conditions of the recharge and discharge zones. The saturation degree of thermal waters with various secondary minerals (carbonates, fluorides, clays minerals, zeolites, pyrogenetic minerals, etc.) is also calculated. The thermal water – rock system is shown to be an equilibrium-nonequilibrium system. While ascent to the surface, studied thermal waters continuously dissolve minerals that are far from equilibrium and form new minerals that are in equilibrium with water. Over time, the solution composition, type of secondary minerals, and chemical element proportions change because some elements precipitate from the solution and the rest continue to accumulate. In nitric thermal waters, the dynamic equilibrium of elements entering and precipitating from the solution is achieved during early stages when the water is ultra-fresh, which creates high pH values and low PCO2. This equilibrium state decreases the total dissolved solids (TDS) growth of nitric thermal waters, which stay low mineralized. Carbon dioxide thermal waters have higher PCO2 and, accordingly, lower pH values, thus achieving dynamic equilibrium during later stages when their TDS exceeds 3 g/l. Therefore, carbon dioxide thermal waters are more mineralized. The origin of redundant elements, particularly F, in thermal waters is considered in the paper, and we show that the source of fluorine is simple minerals of igneous origin.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-130
Number of pages18
JournalApplied Geochemistry
Volume96
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018

Fingerprint

Geochemistry
thermal water
geochemistry
Water
Carbon Dioxide
Minerals
carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide
secondary mineral
province
Hot Temperature
Chemical elements
mineral
Chemical analysis
Carbonate minerals
Zeolites
new mineral
chemical element
fluorine
Fluorine

Keywords

  • Carbon dioxide thermal waters
  • Equilibrium-nonequilibrium state
  • Evolution in the water-rock system
  • Hydrogeochemistry
  • Nitric thermal waters
  • Sources of redundant elements
  • Water-rock interaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Geochemistry of the thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, China. / Shvartsev, S. L.; Sun, Z.; Borzenko, S. V.; Gao, B.; Tokarenko, O. G.; Zippa, E. V.

In: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 96, 01.09.2018, p. 113-130.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shvartsev, S. L. ; Sun, Z. ; Borzenko, S. V. ; Gao, B. ; Tokarenko, O. G. ; Zippa, E. V. / Geochemistry of the thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, China. In: Applied Geochemistry. 2018 ; Vol. 96. pp. 113-130.
@article{2a442658543341888134c8fd7416e8e1,
title = "Geochemistry of the thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, China",
abstract = "The chemical and isotopic compositions and the origin and formation conditions of the nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters in Jiangxi Province (China) are examined. The differences between these nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters are shown. The nitric thermal waters are ultra-fresh and high alkaline with abundant SiO2, F, Na, Li, B, Sr, Rb, etc. but low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, Ag, V, Pb, Zn, Co, etc. The carbon dioxide thermal waters are distinguished by higher salinity but lower pH values. The predominant anions are HCO3 − and Na+. The thermal waters’ composition peculiarity is also determined by SO4 2−, F−, CO2 and H2S. The special focus is on the thermal waters’ origin and the geological conditions of the recharge and discharge zones. The saturation degree of thermal waters with various secondary minerals (carbonates, fluorides, clays minerals, zeolites, pyrogenetic minerals, etc.) is also calculated. The thermal water – rock system is shown to be an equilibrium-nonequilibrium system. While ascent to the surface, studied thermal waters continuously dissolve minerals that are far from equilibrium and form new minerals that are in equilibrium with water. Over time, the solution composition, type of secondary minerals, and chemical element proportions change because some elements precipitate from the solution and the rest continue to accumulate. In nitric thermal waters, the dynamic equilibrium of elements entering and precipitating from the solution is achieved during early stages when the water is ultra-fresh, which creates high pH values and low PCO2. This equilibrium state decreases the total dissolved solids (TDS) growth of nitric thermal waters, which stay low mineralized. Carbon dioxide thermal waters have higher PCO2 and, accordingly, lower pH values, thus achieving dynamic equilibrium during later stages when their TDS exceeds 3 g/l. Therefore, carbon dioxide thermal waters are more mineralized. The origin of redundant elements, particularly F, in thermal waters is considered in the paper, and we show that the source of fluorine is simple minerals of igneous origin.",
keywords = "Carbon dioxide thermal waters, Equilibrium-nonequilibrium state, Evolution in the water-rock system, Hydrogeochemistry, Nitric thermal waters, Sources of redundant elements, Water-rock interaction",
author = "Shvartsev, {S. L.} and Z. Sun and Borzenko, {S. V.} and B. Gao and Tokarenko, {O. G.} and Zippa, {E. V.}",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.06.010",
language = "English",
volume = "96",
pages = "113--130",
journal = "Applied Geochemistry",
issn = "0883-2927",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Geochemistry of the thermal waters in Jiangxi Province, China

AU - Shvartsev, S. L.

AU - Sun, Z.

AU - Borzenko, S. V.

AU - Gao, B.

AU - Tokarenko, O. G.

AU - Zippa, E. V.

PY - 2018/9/1

Y1 - 2018/9/1

N2 - The chemical and isotopic compositions and the origin and formation conditions of the nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters in Jiangxi Province (China) are examined. The differences between these nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters are shown. The nitric thermal waters are ultra-fresh and high alkaline with abundant SiO2, F, Na, Li, B, Sr, Rb, etc. but low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, Ag, V, Pb, Zn, Co, etc. The carbon dioxide thermal waters are distinguished by higher salinity but lower pH values. The predominant anions are HCO3 − and Na+. The thermal waters’ composition peculiarity is also determined by SO4 2−, F−, CO2 and H2S. The special focus is on the thermal waters’ origin and the geological conditions of the recharge and discharge zones. The saturation degree of thermal waters with various secondary minerals (carbonates, fluorides, clays minerals, zeolites, pyrogenetic minerals, etc.) is also calculated. The thermal water – rock system is shown to be an equilibrium-nonequilibrium system. While ascent to the surface, studied thermal waters continuously dissolve minerals that are far from equilibrium and form new minerals that are in equilibrium with water. Over time, the solution composition, type of secondary minerals, and chemical element proportions change because some elements precipitate from the solution and the rest continue to accumulate. In nitric thermal waters, the dynamic equilibrium of elements entering and precipitating from the solution is achieved during early stages when the water is ultra-fresh, which creates high pH values and low PCO2. This equilibrium state decreases the total dissolved solids (TDS) growth of nitric thermal waters, which stay low mineralized. Carbon dioxide thermal waters have higher PCO2 and, accordingly, lower pH values, thus achieving dynamic equilibrium during later stages when their TDS exceeds 3 g/l. Therefore, carbon dioxide thermal waters are more mineralized. The origin of redundant elements, particularly F, in thermal waters is considered in the paper, and we show that the source of fluorine is simple minerals of igneous origin.

AB - The chemical and isotopic compositions and the origin and formation conditions of the nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters in Jiangxi Province (China) are examined. The differences between these nitric and carbon dioxide thermal waters are shown. The nitric thermal waters are ultra-fresh and high alkaline with abundant SiO2, F, Na, Li, B, Sr, Rb, etc. but low concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cl, Ag, V, Pb, Zn, Co, etc. The carbon dioxide thermal waters are distinguished by higher salinity but lower pH values. The predominant anions are HCO3 − and Na+. The thermal waters’ composition peculiarity is also determined by SO4 2−, F−, CO2 and H2S. The special focus is on the thermal waters’ origin and the geological conditions of the recharge and discharge zones. The saturation degree of thermal waters with various secondary minerals (carbonates, fluorides, clays minerals, zeolites, pyrogenetic minerals, etc.) is also calculated. The thermal water – rock system is shown to be an equilibrium-nonequilibrium system. While ascent to the surface, studied thermal waters continuously dissolve minerals that are far from equilibrium and form new minerals that are in equilibrium with water. Over time, the solution composition, type of secondary minerals, and chemical element proportions change because some elements precipitate from the solution and the rest continue to accumulate. In nitric thermal waters, the dynamic equilibrium of elements entering and precipitating from the solution is achieved during early stages when the water is ultra-fresh, which creates high pH values and low PCO2. This equilibrium state decreases the total dissolved solids (TDS) growth of nitric thermal waters, which stay low mineralized. Carbon dioxide thermal waters have higher PCO2 and, accordingly, lower pH values, thus achieving dynamic equilibrium during later stages when their TDS exceeds 3 g/l. Therefore, carbon dioxide thermal waters are more mineralized. The origin of redundant elements, particularly F, in thermal waters is considered in the paper, and we show that the source of fluorine is simple minerals of igneous origin.

KW - Carbon dioxide thermal waters

KW - Equilibrium-nonequilibrium state

KW - Evolution in the water-rock system

KW - Hydrogeochemistry

KW - Nitric thermal waters

KW - Sources of redundant elements

KW - Water-rock interaction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85049853729&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85049853729&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.06.010

DO - 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.06.010

M3 - Article

VL - 96

SP - 113

EP - 130

JO - Applied Geochemistry

JF - Applied Geochemistry

SN - 0883-2927

ER -