The structure and the internal stress fields in R65 rails withdrawn from operation because of side wear after long-term operation are studied and estimated. A high scalar dislocation density (higher by a factor of 1.5–2), the fragmentation of cementite lamellae, and the precipitation of carbide particles are detected in the layers adjacent to the roll surface. The stresses at the boundaries of the particles with the ferrite matrix can exceed the ultimate strength of the steel.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Metals and Alloys