Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a multifactorial disease of preterm neonates of complex etiology, is a significant problem within very low birth weight infants. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in both the pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic of this disease. At this time, there is little direct evidence of the changes in NO production and metabolism that occur within BPD in humans. Animal models have implied that reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and NO production in the early stages of the disease may be critical factors. However, inflammation and hence iNOS expression, is also thought to play a role. In the present study we have utilized pathological samples to determine changes in the expression of NOS and NO metabolites within late stage BPD. It is our contention that within these samples iNOS expression is increased and associated with increased NO metabolite production. Mild immunostaining of all three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes (neuronal, inducible and endothelial) is observed in control lung with tight localization to the endothelium and epithelial airway. This tight localization was lost in samples from subjects with BPD. There was also a marked increase in iNOS expression throughout the lung tissue with strong coexistence with an epithelial cell marker cytokeratin. NO reaction products are altered with BPD as evidenced by increased S-nitrosothiol (SNO) and strong nitrotyrosine (NO2Y) imunoreactivity. This study demonstrates a strong correlation between products of NO reactivity and NOS localization in BPD.
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
- Chronic lung disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine