The previously developed experimental-theoretical approach describing the multilevel structure of carbon fiber reinforced composites and the features of the propagation of elastic waves in them has been modified to study samples containing defects. In the first step, a defect of a given configuration is created both in model and real samples of the composites. Further verification of the computer model is made by comparing the surface vibration patterns of the samples during the passage of an elastic wave through them. On the basis of a series of numerical calculations, the characteristics of the wave are determined, under which the defect is most clearly manifested in the vibro-displacement fields. Only at the final stage of the research the quality control of the real sample with the defined parameters of the introduced elastic wave with the involvement of the SLDV has been carried out. Thus, the approach makes it possible to drastically shorten the time of experimental measurements when a defect of a given configuration is detected.