Energy storage using palladium and titanium targets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background/Objectives: The paper provides the structure of titanium and palladium tablets saturated with deuterium and intended for increasing the energy of deuterons. Methods/Statistical analysis: The tablets have a double-sided oxide layer on the surface of deuterated palladium and titanium. The target is heated in the oxygen environment up to a temperature of 1200 0C. Heating during free oxygen access on the both sides of the tablet leads to the fact that the tablet is oxidized to form TiOx and PdOy oxides. The thickness of the oxide layer is varied from 0.02 to 0.05 microns. The energy of deuterons increases by more than two orders of magnitude during irradiation of tablets by an electron beam with an energy of 30 keV on the both sides as compared to the thermal energy. The proposed method allows us to obtain a greater number of deuterons with an energy exceeding the energy released during one-sided irradiation. Findings: The high kinetic energy of atoms (D) can be achieved due to acceleration in a strong electric field formed during electron irradiation. The effective acceleration energy can be estimated as follows WD eff = + eE(TiO2)h(TiO2), where = 3 eV is the average primary energy of the ion in the target caused by the generation of plasmons; E(TiO2) ≈ 3.107 V/cm is the electric field intensity in the target; h(TiO2) = 1.5 · 10-5 cm is the thickness of the oxide layer on the target surface. Estimations provide the maximum acceleration energy of deuterons 500 WD eff 500 eV. Applications/Improvements: This paper presents the study of structural characteristics of the tablets made of titanium and palladium and intended for the increase in energy of deuterons during electron irradiation of deuterated metals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number90582
JournalIndian Journal of Science and Technology
Volume8
Issue number36
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Fingerprint

energy storage
palladium
tablets
titanium
deuterons
energy
oxides
electron irradiation
deuteron irradiation
irradiation
electric fields
oxygen
plasmons
thermal energy
statistical analysis
deuterium
kinetic energy
electron beams
heating

Keywords

  • Electron Irradiation
  • Energy Storage
  • Kinetic Energy of Atoms
  • Palladium and Titanium Target

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Energy storage using palladium and titanium targets. / Chernov, I. P.; Larionov, V. V.; Lider, A. M.; Maximova, N. G.

In: Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 36, 90582, 01.12.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background/Objectives: The paper provides the structure of titanium and palladium tablets saturated with deuterium and intended for increasing the energy of deuterons. Methods/Statistical analysis: The tablets have a double-sided oxide layer on the surface of deuterated palladium and titanium. The target is heated in the oxygen environment up to a temperature of 1200 0C. Heating during free oxygen access on the both sides of the tablet leads to the fact that the tablet is oxidized to form TiOx and PdOy oxides. The thickness of the oxide layer is varied from 0.02 to 0.05 microns. The energy of deuterons increases by more than two orders of magnitude during irradiation of tablets by an electron beam with an energy of 30 keV on the both sides as compared to the thermal energy. The proposed method allows us to obtain a greater number of deuterons with an energy exceeding the energy released during one-sided irradiation. Findings: The high kinetic energy of atoms (D) can be achieved due to acceleration in a strong electric field formed during electron irradiation. The effective acceleration energy can be estimated as follows WD eff = + eE(TiO2)h(TiO2), where = 3 eV is the average primary energy of the ion in the target caused by the generation of plasmons; E(TiO2) ≈ 3.107 V/cm is the electric field intensity in the target; h(TiO2) = 1.5 · 10-5 cm is the thickness of the oxide layer on the target surface. Estimations provide the maximum acceleration energy of deuterons 500 WD eff 500 eV. Applications/Improvements: This paper presents the study of structural characteristics of the tablets made of titanium and palladium and intended for the increase in energy of deuterons during electron irradiation of deuterated metals.",
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AU - Chernov, I. P.

AU - Larionov, V. V.

AU - Lider, A. M.

AU - Maximova, N. G.

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AB - Background/Objectives: The paper provides the structure of titanium and palladium tablets saturated with deuterium and intended for increasing the energy of deuterons. Methods/Statistical analysis: The tablets have a double-sided oxide layer on the surface of deuterated palladium and titanium. The target is heated in the oxygen environment up to a temperature of 1200 0C. Heating during free oxygen access on the both sides of the tablet leads to the fact that the tablet is oxidized to form TiOx and PdOy oxides. The thickness of the oxide layer is varied from 0.02 to 0.05 microns. The energy of deuterons increases by more than two orders of magnitude during irradiation of tablets by an electron beam with an energy of 30 keV on the both sides as compared to the thermal energy. The proposed method allows us to obtain a greater number of deuterons with an energy exceeding the energy released during one-sided irradiation. Findings: The high kinetic energy of atoms (D) can be achieved due to acceleration in a strong electric field formed during electron irradiation. The effective acceleration energy can be estimated as follows WD eff = + eE(TiO2)h(TiO2), where = 3 eV is the average primary energy of the ion in the target caused by the generation of plasmons; E(TiO2) ≈ 3.107 V/cm is the electric field intensity in the target; h(TiO2) = 1.5 · 10-5 cm is the thickness of the oxide layer on the target surface. Estimations provide the maximum acceleration energy of deuterons 500 WD eff 500 eV. Applications/Improvements: This paper presents the study of structural characteristics of the tablets made of titanium and palladium and intended for the increase in energy of deuterons during electron irradiation of deuterated metals.

KW - Electron Irradiation

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KW - Kinetic Energy of Atoms

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