Effect of thermal stratification on free convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid using Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model

M. A. Sheremet, S. Dinarvand, I. Pop

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Natural convection in a square porous cavity filled with a nanofluid in conditions of thermal stratification has been numerically studied. The mathematical model has been formulated in terms of the dimensionless stream function and temperature using the Darcy-Boussinesq approximation and Tiwari and Das' nanofluid model with new more realistic empirical correlations for the physical properties of the nanofluids. Formulated partial differential equations along with the corresponding boundary conditions have been solved by the finite difference method. Particular efforts have been focused on the effects of the Rayleigh number, thermal stratification parameter, porosity of the porous medium, solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles, and the solid matrix of the porous medium (glass balls and aluminum foam) on the local and average Nusselt numbers, streamlines and isotherms. It has been observed an essential effect of thermal stratification parameter on heat and fluid flow fields.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-341
Number of pages10
JournalPhysica E: Low-Dimensional Systems and Nanostructures
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015



  • Nanofluids
  • Natural convection
  • Numerical method
  • Porous media
  • Square cavity
  • Thermal stratification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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