Development of structural light-weight materials with necessary performance characteristics is an important task as they are used in mechanical engineering, aviation and space. It is known that macroproperties of a material depend on the structural-phase state at micro- and meso-level. One of the methods of transformation of the material structure is irradiation of the surface with an intense pulsed electron beam. The purpose of the paper is the analysis of the laws governing formation of a destruction surface structure of hypereutectic silumin AK10M2N in the as-cast state and in the state after exposure to a pulsed electron beam. Deformation of silumin samples was carried out using the strain to failure method. Electron beam irradiation was carried out in the high-speed melting mode of the surface layer of samples prepared for tensile testing. As a result of the studies, it has been found that irradiation leads to formation of multiphase structure with micro- and nanoscale inclusions in the treated surface layer with a thickness up to 70 μm. An increase in strength (in 2 times) and plastic (in 1.8 times) properties of silumin irradiated with an electron beam has been revealed.