Comparison of adaptive algorithms for free space optical transmission in Málaga atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing errors

Marko Smili, Zorica Nikoli, Dejan Mili, Petar Spalevi, Stefan Pani

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1 Citation (Scopus)


In this study, the authors investigate average capacity of free space optics communication over Málaga atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing errors and path loss, for intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection. Various algorithms which use adaptive transmission with both types of detection are considered, such as: optimal rate adaption (ORA), optimal power and rate adaption (OPRA), channel inversion with fixed rate (CIFR) and truncated channel inversion with fixed rate (TIFR). Analytical closed-form expressions for channel capacities of ORA, OPRA and TIFR adaptive transmission are presented, and the authors prove that CIFR transmission is not feasible in the strict sense for the conditions considered. Obtained analytical results are numerically evaluated and graphically presented for different strengths of atmospheric turbulence (in weak, moderate and strong turbulence regime) for both types of detection (IM/DD and heterodyne), and for considered algorithms of adaptive transmission (ORA, OPRA and TIFR). The authors have developed expressions suitable for approximating high signal-to-noise ratio channel capacity, and they graphically present and compare the asymptotic approximations with the obtained analytical results for different strengths of turbulence for both types of detection. Also, obtained analytical results were confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations, and graphically compared for different strengths of turbulence regimes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1578-1585
Number of pages8
JournalIET Communications
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jul 2019



  • atmospheric turbulence
  • free-space optical communication
  • heterodyne detection
  • intensity modulation
  • Monte Carlo methods
  • optical modulation
  • wireless channels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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