Introduction. The article investigates mechanisms of physiological motor regulation and interaction of motor and cognitive activities in disabled people. The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristic features of brain bioelectric activity in students with visual or locomotor system disorders during cognitive and physical loads. Materials and Methods. The participants were students with special education needs, as well as healthy students aged between 18 and 20. They were divided into three groups. The first group consisted of students with locomotor system disorders (type 3 and 4 scoliosis); the second group consisted of students with visual disorders (high degree myopia); the third group (control) was represented by students attending physical education classes twice a week in the main group of health. The studies were carried out in two stages: the first stage (before physical activity) involved conducting a cognitive test followed by EEG recording. The second stage consisted of PWC170 test, followed by a cognitive test. Finally, bioelectric brain activity was examined by means of EEG method. Results. The results show that physical activity has a modulating effect on the cognitive sphere (in particular, on the function of attention and short-term memory) and on bioelectrical brain activity. The study indicated more significant effect on students with visual or locomotor system disorders than on healthy volunteers. In addition, the authors found that the nature, level and periodicity of physical activities, along with the formation of motor stereotypes, contribute to students' adaptation to educational activity. The authors analyzed the interrelation of psychophysiological characteristics, the effectiveness of cognitive activity and motor activity in students with disabilities and established approaches to managing the adaptation of students with special needs to conditions of inclusion by means of motor activity. Conclusions. The mutual influence of physical and cognitive activities is realized by means of developing specific activity patterns of the cerebral cortex, which is reflected in the peculiarities of bioelectrical activity.
- Nervous system
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