Changes of swimmers' emotional states during the preparation of national championship

Do recovery-stress states matter?

Philippe Vacher, Michel Nicolas, Guillaume Martinent, Laurent Mourot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined the trajectories of emotional states and their within-person synergies with perceived stress and recovery during a 4-month training period preceding the French swimming championships. A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis approach was used with 16 high level swimmers. Five waves of assessments of emotional states, perceived stress and recovery were completed. Results indicated that emotional states were characterized by distinct trajectories during the training period preceding a major competition. Specifically, significant positive linear effects of time (i.e., linear increase over time) and negative quadratic effects of squared time (i.e., inverted U shape over time) on anxiety, dejection and anger were observed, whereas the opposite pattern of results was found for happiness and excitement. Moreover, level 2 perceived stress and recovery (i.e., inter-individual predictors) were significantly associated with athletes' unpleasant and pleasant emotional states respectively. At level 1, perceived recovery (i.e., intra-individual predictor) was positively associated with happiness and excitement and negatively related to anxiety, dejection and anger. Finally, within-person interactions of general stress and recovery with time and squared time reached significance for excitement, whereas within-person interactions of specific and total stress with time and squared time reached significance for anxiety. Overall, this study provided insights into the central role played by perceived stress and recovery on the emotional states experienced by high level swimmers. Operational strategies were suggested in order to optimize the stress-recovery balance and in turn the athletes' emotional states during a complete training program.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1043
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume8
Issue numberJUN
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Happiness
Anxiety
Anger
Athletes
Education
Growth

Keywords

  • Athletes
  • Ecological conditions
  • Emotions in sports
  • Multilevel growth curve analyses
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Changes of swimmers' emotional states during the preparation of national championship : Do recovery-stress states matter? / Vacher, Philippe; Nicolas, Michel; Martinent, Guillaume; Mourot, Laurent.

In: Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 8, No. JUN, 1043, 01.01.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{209830d03ad240d8aca5b0043ab71519,
title = "Changes of swimmers' emotional states during the preparation of national championship: Do recovery-stress states matter?",
abstract = "This study examined the trajectories of emotional states and their within-person synergies with perceived stress and recovery during a 4-month training period preceding the French swimming championships. A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis approach was used with 16 high level swimmers. Five waves of assessments of emotional states, perceived stress and recovery were completed. Results indicated that emotional states were characterized by distinct trajectories during the training period preceding a major competition. Specifically, significant positive linear effects of time (i.e., linear increase over time) and negative quadratic effects of squared time (i.e., inverted U shape over time) on anxiety, dejection and anger were observed, whereas the opposite pattern of results was found for happiness and excitement. Moreover, level 2 perceived stress and recovery (i.e., inter-individual predictors) were significantly associated with athletes' unpleasant and pleasant emotional states respectively. At level 1, perceived recovery (i.e., intra-individual predictor) was positively associated with happiness and excitement and negatively related to anxiety, dejection and anger. Finally, within-person interactions of general stress and recovery with time and squared time reached significance for excitement, whereas within-person interactions of specific and total stress with time and squared time reached significance for anxiety. Overall, this study provided insights into the central role played by perceived stress and recovery on the emotional states experienced by high level swimmers. Operational strategies were suggested in order to optimize the stress-recovery balance and in turn the athletes' emotional states during a complete training program.",
keywords = "Athletes, Ecological conditions, Emotions in sports, Multilevel growth curve analyses, Training",
author = "Philippe Vacher and Michel Nicolas and Guillaume Martinent and Laurent Mourot",
year = "2017",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01043",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Frontiers in Psychology",
issn = "1664-1078",
publisher = "Frontiers Research Foundation",
number = "JUN",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Changes of swimmers' emotional states during the preparation of national championship

T2 - Do recovery-stress states matter?

AU - Vacher, Philippe

AU - Nicolas, Michel

AU - Martinent, Guillaume

AU - Mourot, Laurent

PY - 2017/1/1

Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - This study examined the trajectories of emotional states and their within-person synergies with perceived stress and recovery during a 4-month training period preceding the French swimming championships. A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis approach was used with 16 high level swimmers. Five waves of assessments of emotional states, perceived stress and recovery were completed. Results indicated that emotional states were characterized by distinct trajectories during the training period preceding a major competition. Specifically, significant positive linear effects of time (i.e., linear increase over time) and negative quadratic effects of squared time (i.e., inverted U shape over time) on anxiety, dejection and anger were observed, whereas the opposite pattern of results was found for happiness and excitement. Moreover, level 2 perceived stress and recovery (i.e., inter-individual predictors) were significantly associated with athletes' unpleasant and pleasant emotional states respectively. At level 1, perceived recovery (i.e., intra-individual predictor) was positively associated with happiness and excitement and negatively related to anxiety, dejection and anger. Finally, within-person interactions of general stress and recovery with time and squared time reached significance for excitement, whereas within-person interactions of specific and total stress with time and squared time reached significance for anxiety. Overall, this study provided insights into the central role played by perceived stress and recovery on the emotional states experienced by high level swimmers. Operational strategies were suggested in order to optimize the stress-recovery balance and in turn the athletes' emotional states during a complete training program.

AB - This study examined the trajectories of emotional states and their within-person synergies with perceived stress and recovery during a 4-month training period preceding the French swimming championships. A Multilevel Growth Curve Analysis approach was used with 16 high level swimmers. Five waves of assessments of emotional states, perceived stress and recovery were completed. Results indicated that emotional states were characterized by distinct trajectories during the training period preceding a major competition. Specifically, significant positive linear effects of time (i.e., linear increase over time) and negative quadratic effects of squared time (i.e., inverted U shape over time) on anxiety, dejection and anger were observed, whereas the opposite pattern of results was found for happiness and excitement. Moreover, level 2 perceived stress and recovery (i.e., inter-individual predictors) were significantly associated with athletes' unpleasant and pleasant emotional states respectively. At level 1, perceived recovery (i.e., intra-individual predictor) was positively associated with happiness and excitement and negatively related to anxiety, dejection and anger. Finally, within-person interactions of general stress and recovery with time and squared time reached significance for excitement, whereas within-person interactions of specific and total stress with time and squared time reached significance for anxiety. Overall, this study provided insights into the central role played by perceived stress and recovery on the emotional states experienced by high level swimmers. Operational strategies were suggested in order to optimize the stress-recovery balance and in turn the athletes' emotional states during a complete training program.

KW - Athletes

KW - Ecological conditions

KW - Emotions in sports

KW - Multilevel growth curve analyses

KW - Training

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85021232425&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85021232425&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01043

DO - 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01043

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Frontiers in Psychology

JF - Frontiers in Psychology

SN - 1664-1078

IS - JUN

M1 - 1043

ER -