In this contribution, electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) and chemically modified carbon paste electrodes (CMCPEs) is reviewed with respect to their applicability to the determination of various pollutants of both inorganic and organic origin in water samples, including drinking water. At first, carbon paste-based electrodes are presented via a short retrospective survey, introducing and classifying the individual types of which especially chemically modified variants may offer a large palette of electrodes, sensors or even whole detection systems applicable to the water analysis. Both CPEs and CMCPEs are briefly discussed with respect to their specifics such as the "alchemy" of their laboratory preparation or a number of different physico-chemical and electrochemical processes employed in practical measurements. This is also the case of various pre-concentration schemes for electrochemical stripping analysis, which is being the technique of choice in analyses of water samples at carbon paste-based electrodes. The key section of this chapter is a nearly complete survey of methods which have ever been developed and proposed for analysis of water samples when using carbon paste-based electrodes. It covers more than hundred methods for the determination of inorganic ions, complexes, and molecules, as well as nearly the same number of the respective procedures for organic compounds such as environmental pollutants, industrial surfactants, numerous pesticides or carcinogenic substances of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon type. The most important achievements in the field are commented in more detail and typical applications illustrated on numerous examples, mostly based on the research work of the authors and withdrawn from their own archives. Last but not least, some typical trends in the present day's electroanalysis with CPEs and CMCPEs are outlined and future prospects given focused on specific applications in water analysis.
|Title of host publication||Progress on Drinking Water Research|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||53|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2009|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)