Assessment of dynamic transformer rating, considering current and temperature limitations

Ildar Daminov, Anton Prokhorov, Raphael Caire, Marie Cécile Alvarez-Herault

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Nowadays, transformers can be operated close to their thermal limits. The state of the art in transformer thermal limits are Dynamic Thermal Rating (DTR). DTR can be based on two temperature limits: either a design temperature or maximal-permissible temperature. However, many papers estimate DTR with the design temperature only. Therefore, the true DTR is still underestimated since temperature limit is ignored as well as current limits (in some papers). Moreover, many papers rely on the conservative assumption of typical historical load profile or net load profile (considering the distributed generation, storage, electric vehicles). However, modern DSO can control the shape of (net) load profile. This can make a DTR estimation, assuming some typical (net) load profile, valuable only for a particular shape of (net) load profile but not for its modifications. This paper suggests a DTR feasible region which is constructed from current and temperature limitations and does not rely on typical load profiles. As a case study, we investigate DTR in cold and warm climates: one case in Russia with a continental climate and another in France with a temperate climate. In these climates, we assess DTR for the most common combinations of current and temperature limitations, used in standards and literature. As a result, DTR can ensure an additional capacity up to 45%. DTR, based on temperature limits, are 100% of time higher than nominal rating. Moreover, the limiting factors of DTR are quantified based on analysis of 34-year ambient temperature data. Finally, comprehensive recommendations for transformer overloading are formulated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106886
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Capacity
  • Current limit
  • Dynamic thermal rating
  • Limiting factor
  • Temperature limit
  • Transformer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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