During the last 3 decades, there has been a slow advance to obtain new treatments for malignant melanoma that improve patient survival. In this work, we present a systematic study focused on the antiproliferative and antitumour effect of AgNPs. These nanoparticles are fully characterized, are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and have an average size of 35 ± 15 nm and a metallic silver content of 1.2% wt. Main changes on cell viability, induction of apoptosis and necrosis, and ROS generation were found on B16-F10 cells after six hours of exposure to AgNPs (IC50 = 4.2 μg/mL) or Cisplatin (IC50 = 2.0 μg/mL). Despite the similar response for both AgNPs and Cisplatin on antiproliferative potency (cellular viability of 53.95 ± 1.88 and 53.62 ± 1.04) and ROS production (20.27 ± 1.09% and 19.50 ± 0.35%), significantly different cell death pathways were triggered. While AgNPs induce only apoptosis (45.98 ± 1.88%), Cisplatin induces apoptosis and necrosis at the same rate (22.31 ± 1.72% and 24.07 ± 1.10%, respectively). In addition to their antiproliferative activity, in vivo experiments showed that treatments of 3, 6, and 12 mg/kg of AgNPs elicit a survival rate almost 4 times higher (P < 0.05) compared with the survival rate obtained with Cisplatin (2 mg/kg). Furthermore, the survivor mice treated with AgNPs do not show genotoxic damage determined by micronuclei frequency quantification on peripheral blood cells. These results exhibit the remarkable antitumour activity of a nongenotoxic AgNP formulation and constitute the first advance toward the application of these AgNPs for melanoma treatment, which could considerably reduce adverse effects provoked by currently applied chemotherapeutics.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology