Adenosine provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatics through acute activation of mast cells, but its potential role in chronic inflammation has not been adequately characterized. We hypothesized that adenosine up-regulates Th2 cytokines in mast cells, thus promoting IgE synthesis by B lymphocytes. We tested this hypothesis in human mast cells (HMC-1) expressing A2A, A2B, and A3 adenosine receptors. The adenosine analog 5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) (10 μM) increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-3, IL-4, IL-8, and IL-13, but not IL-2 and IFN-γ. Up-regulation of IL-4 and IL-13 was verified using RT-PCR and ELISA; 10 μM NECA increased IL-13 concentrations in HMC-1 conditioned medium 28-fold, from 7.6 ± 0.3 to 215 ± 4 pg/ml, and increased IL-4 concentrations 6-fold, from 19.2 ± 0.1 to 117 ± 2 pg/mL. This effect was mediated by A2B receptors because neither the selective A2A agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-NECA nor the selective A3 agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-N-methyl-5′ -carbamoyladenosine reproduced it, and the selective A2B antagonist 3-isobutyl-8-pyrrolidinoxanthine prevented it. Constitutive expression of CD40 ligand on HMC-1 surface was not altered by NECA. Human B lymphocytes cocultured for 12 days with NECA-stimulated HMC-1 produced 870 ± 33 pg IgE per 106 B cells, whereas lymphocytes cocultured with nonstimulated HMC-1, or cultured alone in the absence or in the presence of NECA, produced no IgE. Thus, we demonstrated induction of IgE synthesis by the interaction between adenosine-stimulated mast cells and B lymphocytes, and suggest that this mechanism is involved in the amplification of the allergic inflammatory responses associated with asthma.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Jun 2004|
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