A review of the defining chemical properties of soda lakes and pans: An assessment on a large geographic scale of Eurasian inland saline surface waters

Emil Boros, Marina Kolpakova

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the definition of water chemical type, with particular attention to soda brine characteristics by assessing ionic composition and pH values on a large geographic scale and broad salinity (TDS) range of Eurasian inland saline surface waters, in order to rectify the considerable confusion about the exact chemical classification of soda lakes and pans. Data on pH and on the concentration of eight major ions were compiled into a database drawn from Austria, China, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Serbia, and Turkey. The classification was primarily based on dominant ions exceeding an equivalent percentage of 25 (> 25e%) of the total cations or anions, and the e% rank of dominant ions was also identified. We identified four major types: waters dominated by (1) NaHCO3 (10.0%), (2) Na-HCO3 + CO3 (31.4%), (3) Na-Cl (45.9%), and (4) Na-SO4 (12.7%), considering only the first ion by e% rank. These major types can be divided into 30 subtypes in the dataset, taking into account the e% rank of all dominant ions. The major and subtypes of soda brine can be divided into “Soda” and “Soda-Saline” types. “Soda type” when Na+ and HCO3 + CO3 2– are the first in the rank of dominant ions (> 25e%), and “Soda-Saline type” when Na+ is the first in the rank of dominant cations and the sum of HCO3 + CO3 2–concentration exceeds 25e%, but it is not the first in the rank of dominant anions. Soda-saline type can be considered as a separate evolutionary stage between Soda and Saline types respect to the geochemical interpretation by saturation indexes of brines. The obtained overlapping ranges in distribution demonstrate that a pH measurement alone is not a reliable indicator to classify the permanent alkaline “soda type” and various other types of temporary alkaline waters.

LanguageEnglish
Article numbere0202205
Pages1DUMMY
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

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Lakes
Surface waters
Chemical properties
surface water
physicochemical properties
Ions
ions
lakes
anions
Anions
Austria-Hungary
Cations
Water
cations
Mongolia
Kazakhstan
Serbia
Brines
Russia
Salinity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

A review of the defining chemical properties of soda lakes and pans : An assessment on a large geographic scale of Eurasian inland saline surface waters. / Boros, Emil; Kolpakova, Marina.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 13, No. 8, e0202205, 01.08.2018, p. 1DUMMY.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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abstract = "The aim of this study is to evaluate the definition of water chemical type, with particular attention to soda brine characteristics by assessing ionic composition and pH values on a large geographic scale and broad salinity (TDS) range of Eurasian inland saline surface waters, in order to rectify the considerable confusion about the exact chemical classification of soda lakes and pans. Data on pH and on the concentration of eight major ions were compiled into a database drawn from Austria, China, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Serbia, and Turkey. The classification was primarily based on dominant ions exceeding an equivalent percentage of 25 (> 25e{\%}) of the total cations or anions, and the e{\%} rank of dominant ions was also identified. We identified four major types: waters dominated by (1) NaHCO3 (10.0{\%}), (2) Na-HCO3 + CO3 (31.4{\%}), (3) Na-Cl (45.9{\%}), and (4) Na-SO4 (12.7{\%}), considering only the first ion by e{\%} rank. These major types can be divided into 30 subtypes in the dataset, taking into account the e{\%} rank of all dominant ions. The major and subtypes of soda brine can be divided into “Soda” and “Soda-Saline” types. “Soda type” when Na+ and HCO3 – + CO3 2– are the first in the rank of dominant ions (> 25e{\%}), and “Soda-Saline type” when Na+ is the first in the rank of dominant cations and the sum of HCO3 – + CO3 2–concentration exceeds 25e{\%}, but it is not the first in the rank of dominant anions. Soda-saline type can be considered as a separate evolutionary stage between Soda and Saline types respect to the geochemical interpretation by saturation indexes of brines. The obtained overlapping ranges in distribution demonstrate that a pH measurement alone is not a reliable indicator to classify the permanent alkaline “soda type” and various other types of temporary alkaline waters.",
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